The lipidome of an omnivorous insect responds to diet composition and social environment.
Lipids are biomolecules with essential roles in metabolic processes, signaling, and cellular architecture. In this study, we investigated changes in the lipidome of the house cricket Acheta domesticus subjected to diets of different nutritional composition (i.e., protein to carbohydrate ratio) and two distinct social environments (i.e., solitary or in groups). We measured relative abundances of 811 lipid species in whole-body cricket samples using flow injection analysis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We assessed differences in the relative abundances of lipid species induced by diet composition and social environment in female and male A. domesticus. Additionally, we performed a functional analysis of the lipids with significant differences using a recently developed database. We found that most differences in the relative abundances of lipid species were explained by sex alone. Furthermore, the lipidome of female A. domesticus was responsive to diet composition. Females fed with the balanced diet had an even higher abundance of lipids involved in lipid storage than their counterparts fed with a protein-rich diet. Interestingly, the male cricket lipidome was not responsive to diet composition. In addition, the social environment did not induce significant changes in the lipid profile neither in female nor in male crickets.