The diversity and radiation of the largest monophyletic animal group on New Caledonia (Trichoptera: Ecnomidae: Agmina)
In area, New Caledonia is the smallest of the world’s 25 official biodiversity hotspots, but in many taxonomic groups, the island has the highest concentration of species on earth, particularly so in the freshwater insect order Trichoptera. This study aims at applying molecular data and morphology for estimating the real species diversity of the genus Agmina on New Caledonia and investigating potential effects of ultramafic rock substrate on diversification. A dated molecular phylogeny was applied to study diversity and diversification related to geological substrate using the dispersal–extinction– cladogenesis model, D I V A and Bayesian ancestral character reconstruction. More than 47 species (> 63%) were unknown to science. Initial radiation occurred on ultramafic substrate followed by several independent dispersal events to nonultramafic substrate. The rate of shift from ultramafic to nonultramafic substrate was significantly higher than the rate of shift in the opposite direction,indicating a possible cost associated with living on ultramafic substrate.