Roundup Original DI® and thermal stress affect survival, morphology and thermal tolerance in tadpoles of Boana faber (Hylidae, Anura)
In amphibians, stressful environments can lead to accelerated metamorphosis at the expense of total length, resulting in the occurrence of morphological abnormalities. Many studies have linked the occurrence of these phenomena to the pollution of habitats by pesticides and thermal stress. Here, we assessed how exposure to Roundup Original DI® and higher constant temperatures affect the survival of Boana faber tadpoles and estimate the CL5096hs for the population. In addition, we evaluated how exposure to Roundup affects larval growth, morphology and thermal tolerance. Our findings suggest that even at sublethal doses, Roundup Original DI® may affect the survival of Boana faber larvae. There also appears to be an additive effect between Roundup and temperature increase on larval survival, however, we need to further explore this point to determine a pattern, proving to be a promising issue to be investigated in the future. We observed effects of chronic exposure to the herbicide formulation on the morphology and growth of the tadpoles, resulting in a reduction in total length and differences in the shape of the larvae. Although we did not recover any direct effects of herbicide exposure on CTMax, we did observe an upward trend in CTMax for tadpoles exposed to Roundup. Understanding how anthropogenic changes affect anuran persistence is fundamental for the management and conservation of the species and can be considered an initial step toward the formulation of legislations that regulate the use of herbicides.