Redescription of a forgotten endemic pill millipede
The Italian pill millipede species Glomeris apuana Verhoeff, 1911, is redescribed from fresh material and its COI barcoding fragment is sequenced. The new specimens were compared to the original type series, of which a lectotype was selected. G. apuana was apparently still viewed as a subspecies of G. ligurica, as its name cannot be found in 'Fauna Europaea', or any faunal lists or catalogues in the last 85 years. We show that the species is both genetically and morphologically unique. G. apuana is easy to identify based on its entirely black coloration in combination with the absence of any main striae on the thoracic shield. Genetically, G. apuana shows large p-distances of >10% to four different populations of G. ligurica Latzel, 1884. G. apuana also differs from other sequenced Glomeris species, G. marginata Latreille, 1803, G. connexa Koch, 1847, and G. klugii Brandt, 1833 by p-distances of >10%. Specimens of G. klugii from a population occurring in sympatry with G. apuana were newly sequenced. All records of G. apuana, a large, easy to identify and conspicuous species, are from a narrow coastal zone of the Apuan Alps, an area in which the species might be microendemic.