Phylogeny of pipizine
The taxonomic rank and phylogenetic relationships of the pipizine flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae: Pipizini) were estimated based on DNA sequence data from three gene regions (COI, 28S and 18S) and 111 adult morphological characters. Pipizini has been treated as member of subfamily Eristalinae based on diagnostic adult morphological characteristics, while the larval feeding mode and morphology is shared with members of subfamily Syrphinae. We analyzed each data set, both separately and combined, in a total evidence approach under parsimony and maximum likelihood. To evaluate the influence of different alignment strategies of rDNA 28S and 18S genes on the resulting topologies, we compared the topologies inferred with a MAFFT alignment with those topologies resulting from aligning the secondary structure of these rDNA genes. Total evidence analyses resolved pipizines as sister group of the subfamily Syrphinae. Although the structural alignment and the MAFFT alignment differed in the inferred relationships of some clades and taxa, there was congruence in the placement of pipizines. The homogenous morphology of the Pipizini clade in combination with their unique combination of characters among the Syrphidae suggest a change of rank to subfamily. Thus, we propose to divide Syrphidae in four subfamilies, including the subfamily Pipizinae stat. rev.