Extensive genomic reshuffling involved in the karyotype evolution of genus Cerradomys
Rodents of the genus Cerradomys belong to the tribe Oryzomyini and present high chromosome variability with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=46 to 60. Classical cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric and whole chromosome-specific probes of another Oryzomyini, Oligoryzomys moojeni (OMO), were used to assess the karyotype evolution of the genus. Results were integrated into a molecular phylogeny to infer the hypothetical direction of chromosome changes. The telomeric FISH showed signals in telomeres in species that diverged early in the phylogeny, plus interstitial telomeric signals (ITS) in some species from the most derived clades (C. langguthi, C. vivoi, C. goytaca, and C. subflavus). Chromosome painting revealed homology from 23 segments of C. maracajuensis and C. marinhus to 32 of C. vivoi. Extensive chromosome reorganization was responsible for karyotypic differences in closely related species. Major drivers for genomic reshuffling were in tandem and centric fusion, fission, paracentric and pericentric inversions or centromere repositioning. Chromosome evolution was associated with an increase and decrease in diploid number in different lineages and ITS indicate remnants of ancient telomeres. Cytogenetics results corroborates that C. goytaca is not a junior synonym of C. subflavus since the karyotypic differences found may lead to reproductive isolation.