Alpine birds of Africa
Africa's alpine biome, the Afroalpine, extends between the treeline and the permanent snow line. The number of bird taxa recorded in this area is relatively small, particularly considering the speciose subjacent Afromontane. By and large, the avifauna of the Afroalpine represents a greatly impoverished Afromontane community as opposed to its own distinct community, although a few taxa are more regularly encountered than others, including a small number of endemics. Further research is needed to better comprehend Afroalpine birdlife and to identify biotic and abiotic triggers shaping its temporal and spatial distribution, particularly considering the effects of ongoing climate change.